Feed the Future
This project is part of the U.S. Government's global hunger and food security initiative.

5.6.3. Resources for Assessing Conflict

Assessing Conflict

  • NORAD, Assessment of Sustainability Elements / Key Risk Factors: A Practical Guide[1]: This practical Guide is helpful in identifying and documenting the effects, impacts and risks programs face in conflict-affected situations. It lists seven critical elements that donors and practitioners should assess during program design, implementation and evaluation to determine risk factors and help avoid unintended negative impacts and maximize positive ones.
  • USAID, Conducting a Conflict Assessment: A Framework for Strategy and Program Development[2]: is designed to help USAID Missions 1) identify and prioritize the most important causes and consequences of violence and instability in a given country context; 2) understand how existing aid programs interact with these factors; and 3) determine where development and humanitarian assistance can most effectively support local efforts to manage conflict and build peace.
  • DFID, Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes[3]: a methodology for analyzing conflict at the regional, country or project levels; for assessing conflict-related risks associated with development or humanitarian assistance; and for developing options for conflict-sensitive policies and programs. While it offers an illustrative list of programming options, it does not provide guidance on economic growth projects or choosing among the options.
  • GTZ, Conflict Analysis for Project Planning and Management[4]: Guidelines that provide pointers on how to approach gathering and evaluating action-related information about a conflict situation and on the strategic focus of project activities with regard to preventing, managing and resolving violent conflicts.
  • The World Bank, The Conflict Analysis Framework: Identifying Conflict-related Obstacles to Development[5]: This country-level analysis examines six categories of variables to develop a prioritized list of factors affecting conflict and to adjust programming to positively influence them. It can be used as a stand-alone tool or as part of a broader social analysis. It is less useful for practitioners working on a smaller scale.
  • United Nations, Global Compact Business Guide for Conflict Impact Assessment and Risk Management[6]: This guide helps SMEs develop strategies that minimize the negative, and maximize the positive, effects of investing in areas of ongoing or potential conflict by establishing a sustainable business environment and contributing to conflict prevention and peace-building.
  • SIDA, Manual for Conflict Analysis[7]: provides practical guidance on how to analyze violent conflicts to better understand how development cooperation is affected by, and can affect, potential or ongoing hostilities. SIDA developed the tool to meet users’ needs at the strategic, sectoral and project levels and to help them assess conflict risks and design and implement conflict-sensitive strategies, programs and projects.

 

Case Studies

USAID Guided Case Studies

  • USAID, The Value Chain Development in Conflict-Affected Environments Project – Guided Case Studies[8]: aims to increase understanding of how best to design and implement activities in post-conflict areas that accelerate the transition from conflict to sustainable economic growth. The case studies explore whether and under what conditions application of the value chain approach can help stimulate economic growth in conflict-affected environments.
  • USAID, A Synthesis of Practical Lessons from Value Chain Projects in Conflict-Affected Environments[9]: The paper synthesizes the results and lessons learned from projects that ten organizations developed across 14 value chains in conflict-affected environments; articulates the potential of value chain programming in conflict-affected environments and highlights better practices leading to greater programmatic success in difficult contexts.
  • USAID, Guidance for Case Studies (Value Chain Development in Conflict-Affected Environments)[10]: the guidelines the case study writers used for incorporating an analysis of both the conflict and of the value chain into the studies.
  • USAID, Case Study of the Poultry and Grape Raisin Subsectors in Afghanistan[11]: how the value chain approach can be used to rebuild markets and adapted to the need for quick action, and how strategic subsidies can be used with minimal or no market distortion.
  • USAID,Case Studies in Enterprise Development in Post-Conflict Situations: Bosnia and Vegafruit[12]: The value chain analysis identified a domestic company that could reach a broad supplier network and had sufficient technical and managerial capacity to respond to changing markets and to manage risks and buyer-supplier relations. They worked with the firm to rebuild domestic vegetable and fruit processing capabilities. Vegafruit's technical and managerial experience, ability to respond flexibly and rapidly to new information about markets and supplier capacity to deliver and its prioritization of risk management over returns in the early years are what led to Vegafruit's success.
  • USAID, Value Chain Activities for Conflict-Affected Populations in Guinea[13]: using the value chain framework to look at the work an integrated community development program is doing in the groundnuts sector to address the rehabilitation and revitalization of Guinea’s Forest Region where it borders Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.
  • USAID, Tools for Market-Integrated Relief: Haiti’s Construction Sector[14]: the case study of a project to advance stability in Haiti’s most conflict-prone cities by stimulating employment and supporting sustainable livelihoods.
  • USAID, Kosovo Dairy Value Chain Case Study[15]: looks at the sector selection process donors and implementing agencies used in Kosovo from 1999 to 2007 to determine whether dairy was an optimal sector for development and presents an analysis of projects targeting the dairy industry during the same period to see how approaches and interventions evolved over time.
  • USAID, A Comparative Study of High Value Vegetable Value Chains in Nepal[16]: a study of two projects in rural, conflict-affected areas of Nepal, one employing a value chain approach with a primary objective of reducing poverty, and the other integrating the approach with psychosocial and peace-building activities and a goal of building peace.
  • USAID, Rwanda Tourism Value Chain Case Study[17]: an analysis of the value chain approach in mobilizing and upgrading Rwanda’s tourism sector and a discussion of the contribution this made to rebuilding the country’s economy.
  • USAID, Specialty Coffee in Rwanda[18]: The coffee value chain project in Rwanda spent six years seeking buyers in U.S. and European markets and investing in a value chain based on information from potential buyers in high-value markets. Chain participants attended trade fairs and buyer conferences in Africa, the U.S. and Europe, which helped them make contacts and provided a forum for learning about international competitors, finding improved technologies, tracking changing tastes. Their long-term, steady engagement in the process showed potential buyers a consistent presence and commitment that led to a major partnership with Starbucks.
  • USAID, Accelerating Sustainable Growth in Post Conflict Serbia[19]: an evaluation of the impact of two types of development interventions in Serbia’s dairy sector: one targeting processors and the other focused on farmers. The study provides a range of recommendations for future value chain development initiatives in post-conflict environments.
  • USAID, Analysis of the Fisheries Sector in Sri Lanka[20]: this study looks at the ability of a value chain analysis to determine the impact of violent conflict and governance failures on the fisheries industry and uses the analysis to draft recommendations for effectively developing the industry’s capacity to contribute to equitable economic opportunities.
  • USAID, Value Chain Framework and the Lulu Livelihoods Programme[21]: with a focus on Sudan’s shea butter industry, the study details the strategies one program used to cope with the ongoing conflict and presents research findings based on the four hypotheses it tested.
  • USAID, Cotton Value Chain Case Study for Northern Uganda[22]: lessons learned from a pilot initiative to promote cotton production among displaced farmers living in camps in Northern Uganda, and the applicability of the value chain approach in such situations.

Other Case Studies and Projects

  • Trading in Power: The Politics of “Free” Markets in Afghanistan, The Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU)[23]: The study warns against efforts to promote formerly functioning and now “collapsed’’ markets. It states that such policies risk reinforcing the interests of the economic elites who held power during the reign of the Taliban. Many are connected to powerful political stakeholders and peace-building efforts that overlook these relationships and trade patterns do so at their peril.
  • Clingendael Foundation, Early Economic Recovery in Fragile States: Case study – Burundi, operational challenges[24]: an illustration of the need to prioritize economic recovery in Burundi as a requirement for creating a peace dividend and maintaining stability and for producing the impetus that can increase the chances for sustainable development.
  • Collier, Paul, Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security[25]: This report finds economic opportunities in Haiti to be far more favorable than those of the fragile states with which it is grouped. Its location offers Haiti, the USA and Canada a rare opportunity to demonstrate that a common interest in pursuing a practical and focused agenda that delivers rapid improvements in socio-economic conditions and scales up into longer term transformation can lift a society decisively out of fragility.
  • Fonkoze, Post-Disaster and Post-Conflict Microfinance: Best Practices in Light of Fonkoze's Experience in Haiti[26]: the experience of Fonkoze, Haiti's largest MFI, particularly the lessons learned and the best practices for implementing microfinance in a post-disaster / conflict situation.
  • IFAD, Republic of Guatemala: Inducing development in a post-conflict setting[27]: An IFAD report on a multifaceted strategy to reduce rural poverty by promoting market-driven development of traditional commercial crops — coffee, cacao and cardamom — through on and off-farm income-generating activities by smallholders and others.
  • International Alert Case Study Series[28]: Strengthening the Economic Dimensions of Peacebuilding: Four case studies illustrate the wide range of economic conflict causes, impacts and needs, and Alert's responses to them. Each case provides a specific snapshot and focuses on particular economic peace-building priorities.
  1. Uganda: Enabling peace economies through early recovery
  2. Nepal: What role for business in post-conflict economic recovery?
  3. Sri Lanka: Rethinking the nexus between youth, unemployment and conflict
  4. Colombia: The challenges of supporting alternative livelihoods opportunities for peacebuilding
  • International Alert, Peace Entrepreneurship Case Studies [29]: Section Two of Local Business, Local Peace: The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector presents more than 20 case studies of private sector actors who have taken proactive steps to address violent conflict through business initiatives in places as varied as Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Guatemala, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Somalia and the South Caucasus. Click here to read Peace Entrepreneurship – an overview of the studies.
  • UNDP, The Challenge of Economic Reform in Post-Conflict Liberia: The insider’s perspective[30]: a study based on interviews with government officials and development professionals conducted to understand how people leading the recovery effort perceived the challenges of economic reform in light of the extremely complicated conflict dynamics at work in Liberia.
  • SDC Nepal: Staying Engaged in Conflict[31]: the results of a project to document the strategy, process and lessons learned in adapting a 50-year long development program in Nepal’s rural areas to a conflict context.
  • USAID, SPRING Uganda[32]: The Stabililty, Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Uganda program works closely with local authorities and actors from the private sector and across civil society to mitigate the causes and consequences of the conflict and to support the stabilization of the most affected areas by implementing activities around peace-building, reconciliation, economic security, social inclusion and access to justice.
  • Power, livelihoods and conflict: case studies in political economy analysis for humanitarian action[33]: In describing different types and levels of conflict, the studies show that various economies—shadow, formal, coping and survival—are intertwined; generalizations about conflict impact and the implications for people and livelihoods cannot explain what is happening at local levels; an historical, regional and international perspective is crucial to understanding complex emergencies; economic and commercial agendas are connected to social and political crises; and why rumor and innuendo may be as important as fact.

 

Conflict-Sensitive Approaches and Practices

  • USAID, Conflict-Sensitive Approaches to Value Chain Development[34]: International Alert offers thoughts and options for integrating conflict tools and learning into value chain analysis and interventions using the value chain framework. The paper explores how such approaches can be used to analyze different chain actors and components and to help ensure the success of initiatives and maximize their contribution to conflict mitigation.
  • SDC, Conflict-Sensitive Programme Management (CSPM) Integrating conflict sensitivity and prevention of violence into SDC programmes[35] This practical guide on conflict sensitive program management (CSPM) contains a process and tools for use in adjusting on-going project activities to conflict situations; includes a practitioner handbook with Tip Sheets and a Resource Pack.

 

Economic Recovery and Growth

  • USAID, Accelerating the Transition from Conflict to Sustainable Growth[36]: an exploration of the lessons, tools and insights on developing and implementing economic recovery and growth programs in conflict-affected environments that examines conflict causes and impacts, analyzes design and implementation implications of VC-based interventions and identifies tools for development.
  • Clingendael Foundation, Early Economic Recovery in Fragile States: Priority Areas and Operational Challenges[37]: how economic activities can contribute to stability as part of an integrated reconstruction strategy. The focus is on the main challenges and types of activities to prioritize; increasing project impact and using local partners and making projects sustainable by embedding them in longer-term ED programs and ensuring national ownership.
  • USAID, Early Lessons Targeting Populations with a Value Chain Approach[38]: early lessons from three projects identify some of the effects of applying a value chain approach to specific groups. Each project takes a unique approach to integrating a market-based approach with social objectives by tailoring interventions to meet the needs and circumstances of the group with which it works.
  • USAID, A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries[39]: this practical guide brings together lessons learned from past and current efforts to promote economic growth in post-conflict countries. It proposes a new approach and provides concrete recommendations for establishing effective economic growth programs and the basis for developing checklists appropriate to specific country contexts.
  • International Alert, Market development in conflict-affected contexts[40]: This note from the International Alert series explains why market development in conflict-affected countries is important and relevant for economic development planners and practitioners, presenting main issues, risks and opportunities that they may face and introducing key stakeholders and processes, questions for consideration and main lessons learned.
  • SEEP, Market Development in Crisis-Affected Environments: Emerging Lessons for Achieving Pro-Poor Economic Reconstruction[41]: practitioner experiences and innovations in using the market development approach in post conflict / crisis situations to avoid market distortion and use the power of markets to move communities more rapidly from relief dependency to independent livelihood security.
  • USAID Microenterprise and Conflict[42]: The USAID Microenterprise Development Office site for initiatives related to value chains, enterprise development and microfinance in conflict-affected environments. USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Tools[43] invites users to rate, comment on and add to an interactive inventory of economic recovery tools; USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Resources[44] includes links, documents, presentations and background on USAID microenterprise development (MED) and conflict initiatives; and USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Events[45] features workshops and online discussions that seek to improve programming in conflict-affected areas.
  • SEEP, Minimum Standards for Economic Recovery after Crisis[46]: the Economic Recovery Standards (ERS) provide strategies and interventions to help conflict or disaster-affected enterprises and livelihoods to re-start or improve markets. The Standards include common standards and assessments and analysis as well as financial services, assets interventions, employment creation and enterprise development.
  • UNDP, Post-Conflict Economic Recovery: Enabling Local Ingenuity[47]: recognizes the role of the international community in supporting post-conflict recovery; analyzes how the community can work together to support post-conflict countries; examines how to deal with the legacy of conflict at household, community, macroeconomic policy and state levels; and how to prevent relapse into conflict and lay the foundations for lasting peace and sustainable development. The background papers used in developing the Post-Conflict Economic Recovery Report can be found by clicking on the reference[48].
  • IDRC, Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution[49]: This book explores the links between trade, conflict and peace in different and varying contexts through case studies in four regions. In considering the potential of regional trade agreements as a tool for reducing inter- and intra-state conflict, the book maps regional RTAs, analyzes factors that hinder or promote regional trade integration, and considers their economic and political impacts.
  • ILO, Relief to Market Development in Crisis-Affected Situations: Chapter 7, ILO BDS Reader 2006[50]: How to provide relief to minimize market distortion and dependency and strengthen market responses; support local markets to help businesses establish and grow; and rebuild systems to mitigate or prevent conflict or facilitate resilience to natural disasters? Market development and relief practitioners are collaborating to devise new strategies for strengthening livelihood security in crisis-affected settings.
  • The World Bank, Strengthening Agricultural Markets in Areas Affected by Conflict (Agriculture Investment Sourcebook – Module 11.4)[51]: This module of the sourcebook for practitioners discusses policy, technical, institutional and program design options and issues and provides a checklist of entry points for post-conflict agricultural investments, lessons learned, recommendations and examples of relevant programs.

 

Economic Recovery and the Private Sector

Works in progress:

  1. Dutch MFA: Economic Development in Fragile Environments
  • Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Business, Conflict and Peacebuilding: An operational framework[52]: A rationale for why multi-national corporation (MNC) business practices should promote peace rather than provide fuel for war and the elements they must address in fragile states—economic concerns, security and safety, governance and legal issues. The paper provides a framework and steps that governments, donors and the development community can take to promote peace-building.
  • International Alert, Business environment reforms in conflict-affected contexts[53]: This note from the International Alert series explains why and how economic development planners and practitioners working in conflict / post-conflict contexts should bear business environment reforms in mind when seeking to attract foreign investors to unstable contexts. It presents main issues, risks and opportunities and introduces key stakeholders, processes, questions to be considered and lessons learned to date.
  • IISD, Enabling Corporate Investment in Peace: An Assessment of Voluntary Initiatives Addressing Business and Violent Conflict, and a Framework for Policy Decision-making[54]: Business investment in at-risk countries can generate incentives to sustain peace or create incentives for violence, mobilize soldiers to secure economic assets for and legitimize autocratic regimes, and undermine emerging democratic processes. This report reviews codes, guidelines and initiatives that address the relationship between business and violent conflict and suggests a framework policy makers can use to encourage responsible investment.
  • International Alert, Foreign direct investment in conflict-affected contexts[55]: Foreign direct investment (FDI) can contributes to peace-building, but it also can be a source of conflict. The note explains why and how the operations of foreign investors are relevant for economic development planners / practitioners and presents issues, risks and opportunities they need to consider when designing initiatives seeking to attract foreign investors to unstable environments.
  • Guide to Resources on PSD in Conflict-Affected Environments[56]: A link to the master list of resources and links on private sector development in post conflict environments gathered from DCED member agencies.
  • International Alert, Local Business, Local Peace: The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector[57]: The publication provides ideas, strategies and encouragement for local businesses in supporting formal peace processes; addressing economic issues; building bridges between divided communities and groups and alleviating security concerns. It includes more than 20 case studies and discusses the special role of women entrepreneurs.
  • DCED, Private Sector Development (PSD) in Post-Conflict Countries: A Review of Current Literature and Practice[58]: The Review collates current experience from Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED) members and others and identifies areas of general consensus and key debates. The document provides both an accessible entry-point into the subject of post-conflict PSD and an exploration of the various controversies and tensions surrounding the theme.
  • GTZ, Private Sector Development in (Post-) Conflict Situations: Guidebook and Internet-based Guide[59]: The Guide discusses the links between conflict, peace and economic development and the challenges of working in a conflict environment and provides practitioners with guidance on successful project development, implementation and monitoring. The on-line Promotion of Economic Development and Employment in Conflict and Post-Conflict Environments Platform (PEECE) (http://www.gtz.de/peece) offers practical advice, tools and examples.
  • DCED, Private Sector Promotion in Conflict Environments[60]: The paper describes a private sector promotion project in Nepal and how sub-sector / value chain analyses can help practitioners develop an understanding of on-going conflicts and design conflict transformation activities. A local economic development approach (LED) and participatory appraisal methodology to analyze competitive advantage also may facilitate work in conflict situations.
  • UNIDO, The PSD Newsletter[61]: A semi-annual publication created to support formulation of industrial policies that improve the business environment for private sector development and build local productive capacity in a private sector-led process, particularly industrial enterprises that drive the economic growth process and foster entrepreneurship, technological dynamism and associated productivity growth.
  • UNDP, The Role of Private Sector Development in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery[62]: Countries need active, equitable and profitable private sectors if they are to graduate from conflict and post-conflict aid-dependency. This paper focuses on the importance of how and when this happens and what can be done to ensure that it develops in the right way.
  • DFID, Stabilization through Economic Initiatives: Private Sector Development[63]: This Issues Note provides a short summary of the lessons and good practices for stabilizing post-conflict environments that DFID has learned to date. The Note also provides guidance on basing economic initiatives on context, conflict and labor market analyses and working with the private sector.

 

Employment and Livelihood Development in Conflict Zones

  • BDS in Conflict Environments – Neglected Potential?[64]: This synthesis of an online discussion presents participants’ experiences and frameworks; descriptions of initiatives working to overcome challenges microenterprises face; and ways to incorporate social and personal schemes into economic development programs targeting conflict-affected populations.
  • Business and decent work in conflict zones: A How? and Why? Guide[65]: Why is decent work a profitable investment in conflict zones? How can business policies and practices fit decent work in conflict zones? This training guide provides companies wanting to operate in conflict zones with information on how to assess labor-related risks; establish decent work and peace-building policies; and develop a decent work culture among stakeholders.
  • Capacity-building for livelihood and local economic recovery: Building sustainable post-crisis recovery[66]: A brief overview of the Early Recovery Cluster and ILO’s contribution to the partnership, particularly the learning package on local economic recovery (LER) it developed for UNHCR and implementing partners (IPs) in Southern Iraq. Contains links to the Early Recovery Cluster and related sites.
  • Demand-driven Approaches to Livelihood Support in Post-war Contexts[67]: An excellent background document for understanding the context of sustainable livelihood programming in conflict-affected environments, the paper provides a rationale for demand-driven models of livelihoods support and key principles for designing demand-driven livelihoods programming models. However, it does not provide specific tools that practitioners / donors can use or adapt.
  • The Economic Life of Refugees[68]: The book examines the day to day activities of refugees as they pursue livelihoods in their communities and considers the roles of international organizations and states that assist or obstruct those livelihoods.
  • Employment Creation, Income Generation and Reintegration in Post-Conflict Settings[69]: This UN policy paper proposes a practical three-track approach of stabilizing income generation and emergency employment; promoting employment opportunities at the local level, where reintegration occurs; and supporting sustainable employment creation and decent work. It recommends tracks be implemented simultaneously, as early as possible and with appropriate intensity and duration.
  • Guidelines for Employment and Skills Training in Conflict-Affected Countries[70]: This ILO document discusses requirements for employment and skills promotion and focuses on how to adapt training and employment programs to the specific conflict context in affected countries and the need for an integrated approach and clearly defined partnerships among local, national and international actors.
  • Livelihoods in conflict: the pursuit of livelihoods by refugees and the impact on the human security of host communities[71]: Forcibly displaced people face challenging environments and can impose economic, environmental and security burdens on their hosts. This paper explores the ways refugees in protracted conflict situations pursue livelihoods, the impact of this pursuit on the human security of affected host communities and how international assistance can facilitate refugee contributions to the economic vitality of host areas.
  • Manual on Training and Employment Options for Ex-Combatants[72]: The manual helps organizations and individuals involved in planning, developing, financing and implementing ex-combatant reintegration programs to understand the principle obstacles to operating such programs and to develop policies and strategies that comprehend the causes of the conflict and carefully address them at local, national and regional levels.
  • Socio-economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: What Role for the EU?[73]: This paper, based on ongoing International Alert research, includes background research in Burundi, Liberia and Nepal and discusses: 1. Why socio-economic reintegration is important; 2. Challenges to socio-economic reintegration; 3. Current approaches to socio-economic reintegration; 4. Implementation considerations and challenges; 5. Recommendations: Enhancing the role of the European Union.
  • Youth Enterprise and Livelihood Development in Conflict Settings[74]: The article summarizes the promising practices for supporting youth enterprise and livelihood development identified by participants at the 2007 Global Youth Microenterprise Conference.

 

Natural Resources and Conflict

  • IISD Conflict-Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries[75]: Though designed primarily for corporations working in extractive industries, the key principles and guidelines presented here apply to any firm working in a conflict environment. Practitioners designing programs or supporting local and/or international businesses in these environments can benefit from the analysis and business practices highlighted in this document.
  • IDRC Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management[76]: Conflict over natural resources — land, water, forests — is an age-old problem and, while the dimensions, levels and intensity of conflict can vary greatly, so too can the opportunities for conflict resolution. This book presents case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America along with essays on the impact of development interventions on peace and conflict, the cultural dimensions of conflict, the meaning of stakeholder analysis and the policy dimensions of conflict management.
  • USAID Forests and Conflict Toolkit[77]: In many conflicts, valuable or scarce natural resources play a central role in causing and sustaining violence, for example the illegal logging and conflict timber that precipitated Liberia's civil war. This toolkit offers: 1) a discussion of the relationship between forests and conflict; 2) lessons learned in developing programs to deal with forest and conflict related issues; 3) program options; and 4) a survey instrument related to forests and conflict.
  • Global Witness, The Usual Suspects: Liberia’s Weapons and Mercenaries in Côte d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone, Why it’s Still Possible, How it Works and How to Break the Trend – A Report[78]: This report documents how the timber industry in Liberia provided the government with the funds and logistical support to access illegal arms and become involved in the international arms markets and mercenary operations in neighboring countries.
  • USAID Land and Conflict Toolkit[79]: The document discusses how land issues can be causal or aggravating factors in conflict, or arise in post-conflict settings. The toolkit sensitizes project designers and implementers to the fact that activities such as infrastructure projects and the exploitation of underground resources can inadvertently cause land conflicts to erupt and familiarizes practitioners with programmatic interventions.
  • IDRC/ANAFAE Managing conflict over natural resources in Honduras[80]: A brief overview of the Alternative Conflict Management Project that trains facilitator networks to promote conflict management and conflict transformation. The methodology is based on multi-stakeholder approaches and supports research exploring appropriate mechanisms, especially sustainable management of natural resources. See also http://www.manejodeconflictos.org/.
  • USAID Minerals and Conflict Toolkit[81]: Minerals took center stage when blood diamonds became a prominent feature of Sierra Leone's civil war and competition over minerals in the DRC followed a similar course. This toolkit raises awareness about the linkages among valuable minerals, development assistance and conflict and provides a survey tool that identifies key questions related to minerals and conflict to help integrate a conflict perspective into development programming.
  • DFID Trading for Peace: Achieving security and poverty reduction through trade in natural resources[82]: This research project showed that fair and equitable trade can provide tools for poverty eradication and help consolidate peace in countries emerging from conflict. The project demonstrated a fundamental point – fairer trade does not have to wait for peace, but can contribute towards building peace.
  • Land Coalition Transforming Land-Related Conflict: policy, practice and possibilities[83]: This paper reviews and analyzes current debates and practices around land-related conflicts. It examines emerging donor agency and civil society networks efforts and identifies areas for reflection and action. The emphasis is on practical actions.
  • IFAD What resources to solve resource-based conflicts?[84]: The question of access to and control of resources informs a number of the conflicts in Africa. However, the 2004 SID Conference on Resource-Based Conflicts in Eastern and Southern Africa found that conflict in Africa cannot be explained by scarcity alone and that marginalization—both political and material—better explains and motivates conflicts in the region.

 

Policies and Principles

  • OECD, The Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations[85]: Ten principles to help international actors foster constructive engagement between national and international stakeholders in countries experiencing weak governance and/or conflict. They are designed to support existing dialogue and coordination processes and to complement partnership commitments.
  • United Nations Policy for Post-Conflict Employment and Reintegration[86]: The paper contributes to a common understanding and provides the UN approach to employment and reintegration, built around a set of guiding principles and programming guidelines designed to support country-level programming. The policy aims to help scale up and maximize impact, coherence and efficiency of UN support to post-conflict countries.
  • USAID Conflict Mitigation and Management Policy[87]: This USAID policy addresses violent conflict that arises due to a complex set of variables coming together and reinforcing each other at multiple levels and critical junctures of a country’s or region’s development. The document looks at key factors that contribute to conflict, articulates the need to integrate an awareness of conflict issues into all development initiatives and provides guiding principles for its mitigation.

 

Support Services

  • Agriculture Value Chain Finance: Tools and Lessons[88] provides a comprehensive look at the models, tools and approaches industry leaders worldwide are using. The book describes, analyzes and illustrates them with 40 industry examples and 5 comprehensive case studies to demonstrate how they work and extracts lessons and applications for others to adapt. The book is essential reading for bankers, microfinance practitioners and credit union leaders working in agriculture as well as practitioners, agribusiness technicians, researchers and policy makers.
  • Conflict and Post-Conflict Environments: Ten Short Lessons to Make Microfinance Work[89]: This note explores key ingredients to the success of microfinance programs in conflict and post-conflict environments and presents lessons for making microfinance work in difficult situations, including: focus on clients’ security, work only with trusted institutions, provide a range of services and maintain separation between finance and relief services.
  • Field Manual - Supporting Microfinance through Grants in Post-Crisis Settings: Supporting MFIs in countries recovering from conflict or natural disaster[90]: The manual describes how grants can effectively support MFIs in post-crisis situations. The guidelines help practitioners outline options for supporting MFIs in post-crisis environments through grants and other forms of technical assistance.
  • Introduction to microfinance in conflict-affected communities. A training manual[91]: The manual provides an overview and guidance on determining if microfinance is appropriate for a population and on developing and implementing programs in conflict-affected countries. It presents clear, step-by-step information on coordinating environmental conditions, identifying clients and influencers and selecting implementing agencies.
  • MFI Post-Crisis Management Wiki[92]: Each crisis is different and MFI management responses unique to the situation. The wiki offers a basic framework, information from a quick literature review, interviews with crisis experts and a discussion of the four phases of post crisis management. The first two, People and Security and Immediate Post Crisis Management are critical in the immediate aftermath and the others, Medium-Term Development and Contributing to Sustainable Development, are focused on the long term.
  • Microfinance in the Wake of Conflict: Challenges and Opportunities[93]: This paper provides a snapshot of the practice of microfinance and microenterprise development in post-conflict situations and of the preconditions essential to initiate a microenterprise development program—reasonable security or stability of access; the reemergence of some market activity; and assurance that refugees / IDPs will remain in place long enough for programs to make and recover loans.
  • Microfinance Amid Conflict: Taking Stock of Available Literature[94]: A brief summary of research conducted to produce literature for practical use on why, when and how to respond with various types of microfinance products and services that meet clients’ demand in diverse conflict situations. The research identified areas with clear outcomes, those requiring further analysis and others that have yet to be examined. In addition, it guided researchers in targeting gaps in the available literature.
  • Microfinance for Refugees: Emerging Principles for Effective Implementation[95]: This paper provides examples that suggest that microfinance can be an appropriate intervention for reducing refugee vulnerability, increasing their self-sufficiency and improving the likelihood of successful repatriation and reintegration. The author emphasizes that interventions must be designed in accordance with principles that account for the specific characteristics and situations of refugees.
  • Rural Finance in Conflict Environments[96]: Though much is written about microfinance in post-conflict countries, there is little documentation of microfinance operations in on-going conflicts. This paper describes how the Small Farmer Cooperatives Limited (SFCLs) in Nepal have reacted to the conflict in that country and offers several lessons that other microfinance organizations in conflicts around the world may be able to use.

 

Toolkits, Guides and Manuals

  • USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation (DCHA/CMM) Toolkits[97]: This cross-cutting global initiative addresses conflict by using available resources and integrating good conflict management practices into traditional development activities. The following toolkits explore risk factors in depth and should be used in conjunction with conflict assessments.
  • Livelihoods and Conflict Toolkit[98]: The toolkit provides 1) an examination of the relationship between conflict and people's livelihoods; 2) lessons in developing livelihoods programs and an introduction to livelihood analysis; 3) a range of program options designed to reduce livelihood vulnerability, strengthen resiliency and help people manage conflict-related shocks; and 4) mechanisms, implementing partners, and contact information.
  • Women and Conflict: An Introductory Guide for Programming[99]: The guide describes the ways conflict and fragility can increase gender inequities and identifies the key issues and methods for understanding the impact of conflict on women;it raises awareness of the issues and suggests creative programming approaches that can help address them by integrating conflict and gender concerns into programs and building on the strengths of women.
  • Youth and Conflict Toolkit[100]: This document: examines key issues related to youth participation in violence; 2) discusses lessons learned in developing programs for at-risk youth; 3) presents a range of program options; 4) includes illustrative monitoring and evaluation tools; and 5) identifies relevant USAID mechanisms and partners. The toolkit elements are designed to help raise awareness about the linkages between young people, development aid, and conflict and integrate a conflict perspective into development programming.
  • The Cluster Approach and Early Recovery[101]: A review of global humanitarian responses to conflict / crisis situations proposed a cluster approach involving partnerships to address gaps and strengthen response effectiveness and to clarify the division of labor and better define the roles and responsibilities of participating organizations. Early recovery is a multi-dimensional process that is guided by development principles that occurs in parallel with humanitarian activities and that supports spontaneous community recovery initiatives and establishes foundations for longer-term recovery.
  • Context-sensitive engagement: Lessons learned from Swiss experiences in South Asia for aid effectiveness in fragile scenarios[102]: A critical assessment of SDC work in South Asia that focuses on its CSPM as viewed through the lens of the Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Sit¬uations (OECD-DAC) and distills lessons for engagement in fragile, con¬flict-affected countries.
  • Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) Toolkit[103]: EMMA is a set of tools and guidance notes that encourages and assists front-line staff working in sudden-onset emergencies to better understand, accommodate and make use of market-systems. EMMA provides accessible, relevant guidance to those who are not specialists in market analysis and adds value to established humanitarian practices in diverse contexts. The tools are adaptable, rough-and-ready, speed-orientated processes that can be integrated flexibly into emergency response planning.
  1. Using EMMA to Analyze the Market for Beans in Sud-Est Haiti[104]:The report analyzes the beans market system in the southeast department of Haiti in March-April 2010, several months after the earthquake. The report examines both the constraints in the market system and the persisting earthquake-related disruptions to services and infrastructure, and provides short and long-term recommendations such as seed distribution and decreased food distribution.
  2. Using EMMA to Analyze the Market for Agricultural Labor in Sud-Est Haiti[105]: This report describes the baseline and affected situation of the agricultural labor market system in southeast Haiti and analyzes the likely impact of interventions aimed at meeting basic household needs. Recommended interventions include immediate cash-for-work and assistance to ensure farmers have sufficient inputs and longer-term help to stimulate rural employment opportunities and strengthen the agricultural sector.
  • DEZA, Gender, Conflict Transformation & the Psychosocial Approach: A Manual[106]: While there is no crisis or conflict area where trauma and the emotional state of the victims is not discussed, many in the development and relief sectors have only a vague idea of what is actually meant by psychosocial. This toolkit describes how to adapt regular development and relief activities in support of the emotional and social recovery of the people with whom they work.
  • Global Compact, Business Guide for Conflict Impact Assessment and Risk Management[107]: The aim of this guide is to help SMEs develop strategies that minimize the negative effects and maximize the positive effects of investing in areas of ongoing or potential conflict by establishing a sustainable business environment and contributing to conflict prevention and peace building. Useful!
  • OECD, Guidance on Evaluating Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities[108]: This guide aims to provide direction to those undertaking evaluations of conflict prevention and peace-building projects, programs, and policies. It aims to assist policy makers and practitioners working in the conflict prevention and peacebuilding field to better understand the role and utility of evaluation, and at the same time to help those working in the field of evaluation better understand the sensitivities that apply in this field. With that dual objective in mind, this guidance will offer advice on those aspects of evaluating conflict prevention and peacebuilding activities that differ from evaluation of humanitarian and development interventions.
  • USAID, A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries[109]: this practical guide brings together lessons learned from past and current efforts to promote economic growth in post-conflict countries. It proposes a new approach and provides concrete recommendations for establishing effective economic growth programs and the basis for developing checklists appropriate to specific country contexts.
  • A Guide for Integrating Human Rights into Business Management[110]: A hands-on tool for companies to integrate human rights practices into their operations, the guide addresses conflict-affected areas and the importance of corporate responsibility with regard to international humanitarian laws. There is a specific focus on complicity in human rights abuses and how corporations can measure and ensure direct and indirect compliance with human rights protocols.
  • Managing Risk, Improving Livelihoods: Program Guidelines for Conditions of Chronic Vulnerability[111]: This reference tool provides a conceptual overview of the CARE rights-based approach to relief and development; programming strategies for chronic vulnerability development projects; and advocacy guidelines to improve vulnerability. One of the four programming strategies sections addresses conflict situations and three others deal specifically with livelihood vulnerability.
  • Minimum Standards for Economic Recovery after Crisis[112]: SEEP Network members developed these minimum standards, key indicators and guidance notes to provide practitioners, donors and others with a consistent, technically sound knowledge base for developing and implementing interventions. The standards articulate the minimum level of technical and other assistance needed to promote the recovery of economies and livelihoods affected by crisis.
  • Peacebuilding Essentials for Economic Development Practitioners[113]: A series of practice notes that introduce key economic recovery and peace-building challenges in conflict-affected and post-conflict countries. The notes contain lessons and good practices on strengthening the economic dimensions of peace-building; provide knowledge and tools to ensure interventions are conflict-sensitive; and promote experience-sharing between ED and peace-building practitioners to enhance synergies.
  • Refuge to Return (R2R): Operational Lessons for Serving Mobile Populations in Conflict-Affected Environments[114]: The note describes ARC’s method of linking financial services to refugees (Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea) in their country of refuge to those in their country of return through a transferable credit history methodology and identifies challenges and opportunities of implementing MF programs for mobile populations in conflict-affected environments.
  • The Sphere Project[115]: Sphere comprises three components: a hand¬book (Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response), a broad process of collaboration, and an expression of commitment to quality and accountability. The project has developed several tools, the key one being the handbook.
  • The Stepped Approach for Improving Livelihoods: An implementation manual for refugee camp & post-conflict environment programs[116]: SAIL aims to improve the livelihoods and economic self-sufficiency of refugee populations through comprehensive business training and access to capital for entrepreneurs, especially women. Directing resources to women can improve conditions for all members of targeted households and also benefit the camp population as a whole by increasing stability and access to goods and improving living conditions.
  • International Alert and the Peacebuilding and Development Institute in Sri Lanka[117]: Understanding the links between the economy and conflict: From understanding to transforming war economies, a PowerPoint presentation, discusses war economy components (combat, shadow, coping); the kinds of licit and illicit economic activities that can finance and perpetuate violent conflict; understanding how aid, development and peace-building programs may inadvertently fuel war economies and do harm; and exploring avenues for transforming them.
  • Urgency and Legitimacy: Tensions in Rebuilding the Legal Infrastructure for Business in Post Conflict Societies, Channell, W. (2007)[118] A paper presented at the Kansas University Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), Conference Helping Failed States Recover: The Role of Business in Promoting Stability and Development, April 4-6, 2007.
  • Urgency and Legitimacy: Tensions in Rebuilding the Legal Infrastructure for Business in Post Conflict Societies, Channell, W. (2007)[119]: A paper presented at Kansas University Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), Conference Helping Failed States Recover: The Role of Business in Promoting Stability and Development, April 4-6, 2007.

 

Donors and Organizations

  • ACDI/VOCA[120] pioneered the use of value chain analysis as a tool for private sector decision makers to identify ways to increase the productivity and competitiveness of the industries in which they operate.
  • American Refugee Committee, International (ARC):[121] ARC provides refugee entrepreneurs with resources, opportunities, small loans and grants as well as skills and knowledge they need for their businesses to survive and be successful.
  • Clingendael (Netherlands Institute of International Relations):[122] A knowledge institute for international relations, Clingendael looks into contemporary conflicts, security threats and international justice issues. The Conflict Research Unit conducts research on the nexus between integrated and comprehensive security and development-focused approaches to conflict prevention, stabilization and reconstruction in fragile and post conflict states.
  • Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED):[123] The Committee promotes enterprise development particularly for small enterprises, in developing countries. It provides a forum, in which member agencies can exchange information about their programs, and the lessons learned through those programs. Site materials are organized into themes that include an exhaustive list of resources on value chain and private sector development in conflict-affected environments.
  • Humanitarian Reform in Action[124] seeks to improve the effectiveness of humanitarian response by ensuring greater predictability, accountability and partnership. It is an ambitious effort by the international humanitarian community to reach more beneficiaries, with more comprehensive, needs-based relief and protection more effectively and expediently.
  • International Alert:[125] IA works with local and multinational business communities to ensure their conduct contributes to creating a stable political climate, rather than fueling tensions or violence. The Strengthening the Economic Dimensions of Peacebuilding project aims to improve the conflict-sensitivity and peace-building impacts of economic interventions; promote good practices; and use advocacy, outreach and networking to ensure that all actors understand the links between economic recovery and peace-building.
  • International Development Research Center (IDRC):[126] IDRC collaborates with developing country researchers in their search for ways to build healthier and more equitable and prosperous societies. The Peace, Conflict and Development (PCD) program supports applied research on the causes of conflict and on post-conflict challenges by partnering with think tanks, universities, policymakers, civil society organizations and global networks of researchers.
  • International Fund for Agriculture Research:[127] Typing rural development and conflict into the IFAD search engine reveals a wealth of conflict-related documents. Though most do not focus on value chains as such, they take an integrated approach that includes linking farmers to markets and facilitating horizontal and vertical linkages.
  • International Land Coalition:[128] A global alliance of civil society and intergovernmental organizations working to promote secure and equitable access to and control over land by the poor through advocacy, dialogue and capacity building.
  • International Rescue Committee (IRC):[129] The Economic Recovery Unit integrates economic and livelihood initiatives into IRC’s programs, identifying standards and models based on specific situations and environments and informing the field of best practices for economic and livelihoods programming.
  • The North-South Institute/L’Institut Nord-Sud:[130] The North-South Institute conducts research and analysis on peace-building and conflict prevention; trade and natural resources; employment and migration; finance for equitable growth; and governance, reform and effective development. The conflicts in Sudan, Burundi and Haiti are focal points.
  • One Response[131] is a collaborative, inter-agency website that promotes the cluster approach to enhance humanitarian coordination and support the exchange of information in emergencies. OCHA, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs owns and manages the website.
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD):[132] The International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) is a decision-making forum that brings governments and international organizations together to support peace-building and legitimate state institutions in challenging development situations. INCAF facilitates dialogue between donors and partner countries and assists with policy and programming development.
  1. The Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations:[133] Ten principles to help international actors foster constructive engagement between national and international stakeholders in countries experiencing weak governance and/or conflict. They are designed to support existing dialogue and coordination processes and to complement partnership commitments.
  2. Helping Prevent Violent Conflict: OECD DAC Guidelines:[134] The guidelines explore ways for donors to help prevent conflict and promote peace, including fostering private sector-led growth in jobs and incomes using a rights and rules-based approach as a basic, long-term component of conflict prevention.
  • The Small Enterprise Education and Promotion (SEEP) Network:[135] SEEP connects microenterprise practitioners in a global learning community and gathers their experience to share, develop and disseminate knowledge that can advance microenterprise practice. This sub-site contains information on economic development in conflict and crisis-affected environments.
  • Transition International[136] is a Netherlands-based, international consultancy firm that specializes in tackling the challenges of transition and promotes change for the better through knowledge-sharing, training and advisory services that help clients manage transitions from: war to peace, relief to development, insecurity to security, crisis to positive change, poverty to dignity and exclusion to representation.
  • UNIDO[137] has a particular vantage point and role in the recovery from, and long-term prevention of, conflict through a sustainable industrial development process.
  • UN-ILO Conflict and Livelihoods Publications[138] include International Labour Standards: A Global Approach and Youth: pathways to decent work: promoting youth employment - tackling the challenge.
  • UN-ILO Employment Crisis Response Publications – A List[139] of crisis response publications that includes Business continuity planning for small and medium enterprises and Employment at the centre of reintegration among many others.
  • UN-IASC Humanitarian Response Review:[140] The ad hoc, unpredictable nature of many international responses to humanitarian emergencies prompted the UN to launch a review of the global humanitarian system to identify critical gaps and recommend ways to address them. The review resulted in the report and formation of a collaborative, inter-agency website, One Response,[141] that promotes the cluster approach to enhance humanitarian coordination and support information exchange in emergencies.
  • UN Partner Agencies – Relevant Links for Post-Crisis Employment:[142] A list of UN-ILO Partner Agencies, Interagency Cooperation and Information Sources.
  • USAID microLINKS: Microenterprise and Conflict (EGAT/MD):[143] The site for USAID Microenterprise Development (MD) office initiatives related to value chains, enterprise development and microfinance in conflict-affected environments. Tools invite users to rate, comment on and add to an interactive inventory of economic recovery tools; resources include links, documents, presentations and background on USAID microenterprise development and conflict initiatives; and events feature workshops and online discussions that seek to improve programming in conflict-affected areas.
  • USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation:[144] CMM leads Agency efforts to identify and analyze sources of conflict; supports early responses to address the causes and consequences of instability and violent conflict; and seeks to integrate conflict mitigation and management into analysis, strategies and programs. The office conducts conflict assessments, develops toolkits, supports conflict management programs and provides training and outreach.
  • U.S. State Department, Office of the Coordinator of Reconstruction and Stabilization:[145] The Office of the Coordinator for Rehabilitation and Stabilization developed tools, equipment and expertise and created and deploys the Civilian Response Corps, specially trained and equipped civilian federal employees, to address and prevent conflict. The CRC leverages expertise and experience from other federal agencies to provide reconstruction and stabilization assistance to countries in crisis or emerging from conflict. Click here to go to the Civilian Response Newsletter.
  • The World Bank: Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction:[146] In fragile and conflict-affected countries it is particularly important that aid be provided in an integrated fashion. To ensure international coordination the Bank fosters strong partnerships with UN agencies and its Peace-Building Commission, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and its Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) and other multilateral development banks and bilateral donors. Visit the World Bank blog on the upcoming World Development Report 2011 Conflict, Security, and Development, a forum for debating practical suggestions on how to address conflict and fragility at the local, national, regional and global levels.

 

Workshops, Trainings and Publications

  • CEFE (Competency-based Economies through Formation of Enterprise)[147]: a comprehensive and highly adaptable set of training instruments using an action-oriented approach and experiential learning methods to develop and enhance the business management and personal competencies of a range of target groups, mostly in the context of income and employment generation and sustainable economic development.
  • Enterprise Development and Microfinance Journal, Practical Action[148]: Volume 21, Number 1, March 2010—Emergency-related microfinance and enterprise development—includes several articles, such as Best practice in a post-emergency environment is no different from normal enterprise development and microfinance as well as some very useful tools for those assisting in economic recovery.
  • International Alert Training Opportunities[149]: IA designs and delivers trainings to strengthen the economic dimensions of peace-building for international and in-country audiences, including partnerships with: 1) the Sri Lanka Peacebuilding and Development Institute to deliver an annual one-week course Strengthening the Economic Dimensions of Peacebuilding; 2) the Swedish Folke Bernadotte Academy and a group of international experts conduct an annual seminar on The Role of Economic Actors in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding and deliver the IA Advanced Training Course on Reintegration of Ex-Combatants that brings experienced practitioners, policy makers and donors together to share best practices and lessons.
  • Peacebuilding and Development Institute[150]: The Peacebuilding & Development Institute at American University provides cutting-edge training, research, assessment, and capacity-building opportunities for practitioners and scholars in the areas of conflict-sensitive development, humanitarian assistance, diplomacy and conflict resolution.
  • SEEP Economic Recovery Workshop Series, 2010[151]: Trainings focused on economic development programming in crisis-affected environments: Minimum Standards for Economic Recovery in Crisis (2 days), Emergency Market Mapping and Assessment (EMMA) Toolkit (5 days), Introduction to Cash Programming (CaLP). Recommended for experienced, senior practitioners working with economic or livelihoods programs in crisis environments.

 

Footnotes

  1. NORAD, Assessment of Sustainability Elements / Key Risk Factors: A Practical Guide
  2. USAID, Conducting a Conflict Assessment: A Framework for Strategy and Program Development
  3. DFID, Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes
  4. GTZ, Conflict Analysis for Project Planning and Management
  5. The World Bank, The Conflict Analysis Framework: Identifying Conflict-related Obstacles to Development
  6. United Nations, Global Compact Business Guide for Conflict Impact Assessment and Risk Management
  7. SIDA, Manual for Conflict Analysis
  8. USAID, Value Chain Development in Conflict-Affected Environments Project – Guided Case Studies
  9. USAID, A Synthesis of Practical Lessons from Value Chain Projects in Conflict-Affected Environments
  10. USAID, Guidance for Case Studies (Value Chain Development in Conflict-Affected Environments)
  11. USAID, Case Study of the Poultry and Grape Raisin Subsectors in Afghanistan
  12. USAID,Case Studies in Enterprise Development in Post-Conflict Situations: Bosnia and Vegafruit
  13. USAID, Value Chain Activities for Conflict-Affected Populations in Guinea
  14. USAID, Tools for Market-Integrated Relief: Haiti’s Construction Sector
  15. USAID, Kosovo Dairy Value Chain Case Study
  16. USAID, A Comparative Study of High Value Vegetable Value Chains in Nepal
  17. USAID, Rwanda Tourism Value Chain Case Study
  18. USAID, Specialty Coffee in Rwanda
  19. USAID, Accelerating Sustainable Growth in Post Conflict Serbia
  20. USAID, Analysis of the Fisheries Sector in Sri Lanka
  21. USAID, Value Chain Framework and the Lulu Livelihoods Programme
  22. USAID, Cotton Value Chain Case Study for Northern Uganda
  23. [http://www.areu.org.af/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44&Itemid=109 Trading in Power: The Politics of “Free” Markets in Afghanistan, The Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU)
  24. Clingendael Foundation, Early Economic Recovery in Fragile States: Case study – Burundi, operational challenges
  25. Collier, Paul, Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security
  26. Fonkoze, Post-Disaster and Post-Conflict Microfinance: Best Practices in Light of Fonkoze's Experience in Haiti
  27. IFAD, Republic of Guatemala: Inducing development in a post-conflict setting
  28. International Alert Case Study Series
  29. International Alert, Peace Entrepreneurship Case Studies
  30. UNDP, The Challenge of Economic Reform in Post-Conflict Liberia: The insider’s perspective
  31. SDC Nepal: Staying Engaged in Conflict
  32. USAID, SPRING Uganda
  33. Power, livelihoods and conflict: case studies in political economy analysis for humanitarian action
  34. USAID, Conflict-Sensitive Approaches to Value Chain Development
  35. SDC, Conflict-Sensitive Programme Management (CSPM) Integrating conflict sensitivity and prevention of violence into SDC programmes
  36. USAID, Accelerating the Transition from Conflict to Sustainable Growth
  37. Clingendael Foundation, Early Economic Recovery in Fragile States: Priority Areas and Operational Challenges
  38. USAID, Early Lessons Targeting Populations with a Value Chain Approach
  39. USAID, A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries
  40. International Alert, Market development in conflict-affected contexts
  41. SEEP, Market Development in Crisis-Affected Environments: Emerging Lessons for Achieving Pro-Poor Economic Reconstruction
  42. USAID Microenterprise and Conflict
  43. USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Tools
  44. USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Resources
  45. USAID Microenterprise and Conflict Events
  46. SEEP, Minimum Standards for Economic Recovery after Crisis
  47. UNDP, Post-Conflict Economic Recovery: Enabling Local Ingenuity
  48. Post-Conflict Economic Recovery Report bibliography
  49. IDRC, Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution
  50. ILO, Relief to Market Development in Crisis-Affected Situations: Chapter 7, ILO BDS Reader 2006
  51. The World Bank, Strengthening Agricultural Markets in Areas Affected by Conflict (Agriculture Investment Sourcebook – Module 11.4)
  52. Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Business, Conflict and Peacebuilding: An operational framework
  53. International Alert, Business environment reforms in conflict-affected contexts
  54. IISD, Enabling Corporate Investment in Peace: An Assessment of Voluntary Initiatives Addressing Business and Violent Conflict, and a Framework for Policy Decision-making
  55. International Alert, Foreign direct investment in conflict-affected contexts
  56. Guide to Resources on PSD in Conflict-Affected Environments
  57. International Alert, Local Business, Local Peace: The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector
  58. DCED, Private Sector Development (PSD) in Post-Conflict Countries: A Review of Current Literature and Practice
  59. GTZ, Private Sector Development in (Post-) Conflict Situations: Guidebook and Internet-based Guide
  60. DCED, Private Sector Promotion in Conflict Environments
  61. UNIDO, The PSD Newsletter
  62. UNDP, The Role of Private Sector Development in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery
  63. DFID, Stabilization through Economic Initiatives: Private Sector Development
  64. BDS in Conflict Environments – Neglected Potential?
  65. Business and decent work in conflict zones: A How? and Why? Guide
  66. Capacity-building for livelihood and local economic recovery: Building sustainable post-crisis recovery
  67. Demand-driven Approaches to Livelihood Support in Post-war Contexts
  68. Karen Jacobsen, Kumarian Press, 2005
  69. Employment Creation, Income Generation and Reintegration in Post-Conflict Settings
  70. Guidelines for Employment and Skills Training in Conflict-Affected Countries
  71. Livelihoods in conflict: the pursuit of livelihoods by refugees and the impact on the human security of host communities
  72. Manual on Training and Employment Options for Ex-Combatants
  73. Socio-economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: What Role for the EU?
  74. Youth Enterprise and Livelihood Development in Conflict Settings
  75. Conflict-Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries
  76. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management
  77. Forests and Conflict Toolkit
  78. Global Witness, The Usual Suspects: Liberia’s Weapons and Mercenaries in Côte d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone, Why it’s Still Possible, How it Works and How to Break the Trend – A Report
  79. Land and Conflict Toolkit
  80. Managing conflict over natural resources in Honduras
  81. Minerals and Conflict Toolkit
  82. Trading for Peace: Achieving security and poverty reduction through trade in natural resources
  83. Transforming Land-Related Conflict: policy, practice and possibilities
  84. What resources to solve resource-based conflicts?
  85. OECD, The Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations
  86. United Nations Policy for Post-Conflict Employment and Reintegration
  87. USAID Conflict Mitigation and Management Policy
  88. [http://pra.styluspub.com/books/BookDetail.aspx?productID=235103 Agriculture Value Chain Finance: Tools and Lessons
  89. Conflict and Post-Conflict Environments: Ten Short Lessons to Make Microfinance Work
  90. Field Manual - Supporting Microfinance through Grants in Post-Crisis Settings: Supporting MFIs in countries recovering from conflict or natural disaster
  91. Introduction to microfinance in conflict-affected communities. A training manual
  92. MFI Post-Crisis Management Wiki
  93. Microfinance in the Wake of Conflict: Challenges and Opportunities
  94. Microfinance Amid Conflict: Taking Stock of Available Literature
  95. Nourse, T., ARC, UNRWA
  96. Rural Finance in Conflict Environments
  97. USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation (DCHA/CMM) Toolkits
  98. Livelihoods and Conflict Toolkit
  99. Women and Conflict: An Introductory Guide for Programming
  100. Youth and Conflict Toolkit
  101. The Cluster Approach and Early Recovery
  102. Context-sensitive engagement: Lessons learned from Swiss experiences in South Asia for aid effectiveness in fragile scenarios
  103. Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) Toolkit
  104. Using EMMA to Analyze the Market for Beans in Sud-Est Haiti
  105. Using EMMA to Analyze the Market for Agricultural Labor in Sud-Est Haiti
  106. Gender, Conflict Transformation & the Psychosocial Approach: A Manual
  107. Global Compact, Business Guide for Conflict Impact Assessment and Risk Management
  108. OECD, Guidance on Evaluating Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities
  109. A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries
  110. A Guide for Integrating Human Rights into Business Management
  111. Managing Risk, Improving Livelihoods: Program Guidelines for Conditions of Chronic Vulnerability
  112. Minimum Standards for Economic Recovery after Crisis
  113. Peacebuilding Essentials for Economic Development Practitioners
  114. Refuge to Return (R2R): Operational Lessons for Serving Mobile Populations in Conflict-Affected Environments
  115. The Sphere Project
  116. The Stepped Approach for Improving Livelihoods: An implementation manual for refugee camp & post-conflict environment programs
  117. International Alert and the Peacebuilding and Development Institute in Sri Lanka
  118. Urgency and Legitimacy: Tensions in Rebuilding the Legal Infrastructure for Business in Post Conflict Societies, Channell, W. (2007)
  119. [http://blrt.business.ku.edu/fs_agenda.php Urgency and Legitimacy: Tensions in Rebuilding the Legal Infrastructure for Business in Post Conflict Societies, Channell, W. (2007)
  120. ACDI/VOCA
  121. American Refugee Committee, International (ARC)
  122. Clingendael (Netherlands Institute of International Relations)
  123. Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED)
  124. Humanitarian Reform in Action
  125. International Alert
  126. International Development Research Center (IDRC)
  127. International Fund for Agriculture Research
  128. International Land Coalition
  129. International Rescue Committee (IRC)
  130. The North-South Institute/L’Institut Nord-Sud
  131. One Response
  132. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  133. The Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations
  134. Helping Prevent Violent Conflict: OECD DAC Guidelines
  135. The Small Enterprise Education and Promotion (SEEP) Network
  136. Transition International
  137. UNIDO
  138. UN-ILO Conflict and Livelihoods Publications
  139. UN-ILO Employment Crisis Response Publications – A List
  140. UN-IASC Humanitarian Response Review
  141. http://oneresponse.info/Coordination/ClusterApproach/Pages/Cluster%20Approach.aspx
  142. UN Partner Agencies – Relevant Links for Post-Crisis Employment
  143. USAID microLINKS: Microenterprise and Conflict (EGAT/MD)
  144. USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation
  145. U.S. State Department, Office of the Coordinator of Reconstruction and Stabilization
  146. The World Bank: Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction
  147. CEFE (Competency-based Economies through Formation of Enterprise)
  148. Enterprise Development and Microfinance Journal, Practical Action
  149. International Alert Training Opportunities
  150. The Peacebuilding and Development Institute
  151. SEEP Economic Recovery Workshop Series, 2010